Dragon Shouts are a new ability type seen in The Elder Scrolls V, unique to the Dragonborn and certain enemies. Shouts can be acquired from Dragon Walls found throughout Tamriel and unlocked by collecting dragon souls from slained dragons. This ability can be used in combat to enhance other skills.
Shouts are actually the spoken language of the Dovah. Every Shout is comprised of three Words of Power, including the names of dragons. Alduin, for instance, is actually "Al," "Du," and "In" combined.